The prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralisation in Northern England and its relationship to socioeconomic status and water fluoridation

Int J Paediatr Dent. 2012 Jul;22(4):250-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2011.01189.x. Epub 2011 Oct 20.


Background: Molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is a condition which has significant implications for patients and service provision.

Aims: The aim of this survey was to determine the prevalence of MIH in 12-year olds in Northern England and to consider the relationship with socioeconomic status and background water fluoridation.

Design: Twelve-year-old children were examined for the presence of MIH. Participating dentists were trained and calibrated in the use of the modified Developmental Defects of Enamel index. Children were examined at school under direct vision with the aid of a dental mirror. A diagnosis of MIH was attributed to a child if they had a demarcated defect in one or more of their first permanent molars.

Results: Of 4795 children that were selected, 3233 (67.4%) were examined. Overall prevalence of MIH was 15.9% (14.5-17.1%). There was an association between prevalence of MIH and deprivation quintiles with a positive correlation in the first 4 quintiles (P < 0.05). There was no difference in prevalence between fluoridated Newcastle and other areas.

Conclusion: Prevalence of MIH is equivalent to other European populations. Prevalence was related to socioeconomic status but not to background water fluoridation.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Cariostatic Agents / analysis
  • Child
  • Dental Enamel Hypoplasia / epidemiology*
  • England / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Fluoridation / statistics & numerical data*
  • Fluorides / analysis
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Molar / pathology
  • Needs Assessment / statistics & numerical data
  • Prevalence
  • Social Class*
  • Tooth Loss / epidemiology
  • Vulnerable Populations / statistics & numerical data
  • Water Supply / analysis


  • Cariostatic Agents
  • Fluorides