SULT1A1 is involved in both detoxification of estrogens and bioactivation of carcinogens in smoked meat. SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphism's effect on breast cancer risk is still unclear. We recruited 400 case-control pairs to investigate the association between SULT1A1 genotypes and breast cancer risk, and the combined effect of SULT1A1 polymorphism and daily intake of smoked meat. Participants were questioned about their dietary habits and other risk factors, and their SULT1A1 genotypes were determined. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by multivariable unconditional logistic regression. We also performed a meta-analysis of relevant published studies to test these associations. In the case-control study, no significant associations were observed between SULT1A1 polymorphism and breast cancer risk. In the meta-analysis, SULT1A1 His/His genotype slightly increased risk among both overall and postmenopausal women (OR(pooled-overall)=1.12, 95% CI: 1.02-1.24; OR(pooled-post)=1.17, 95% CI: 1.03-1.32). A larger positive association was observed in Asian populations (OR(pooled-Asian)=2.01, 95% CI: 1.24-3.26). In our case-control study, high energy-adjusted daily intake of smoked meat was significantly associated with breast cancer risk in overall, pre- and postmenopausal women (aORs: 2.31-3.13, OR 95% CIs exclude 1). High smoked meat intake interacted positively with the His variant allele (all γ>1). These results correlated with those of the meta-analysis (γ(pooled-overall)=1.27). The SULT1A1 His/His genotype may increase the risk of breast cancer among Asian women, and dietary exposure to heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, along with the SULT1A1 His/His variant genotype, may synergistically increase the risk of breast cancer.