The impact of visit-to-visit variability in blood pressure on renal function

Hypertens Res. 2012 Feb;35(2):239-43. doi: 10.1038/hr.2011.170. Epub 2011 Oct 20.


Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases such as chronic kidney disease. It is still not fully understood how blood pressure impacts the kidneys. In this study, we aimed to establish the significance of visit-to-visit variability in blood pressure for renal function. We analyzed 143 consecutive patients undergoing renal Doppler ultrasonography in our hospital ward and measured blood pressure at outpatient visits six or more times. We analyzed the correlation between visit-to-visit variability in blood pressure and multiple clinical parameters, including albuminuria and resistive index evaluated by renal Doppler ultrasonography, which is thought to be a good indicator of renal vascular resistance. Subjects with higher variability in systolic blood pressure showed a significantly higher prevalence rate of clinical albuminuria and microalbuminuria, and showed significantly higher resistive index. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that variability in systolic blood pressure was a significant risk factor for higher resistive index, independent of other renal risk factors. Visit-to-visit variability in blood pressure correlates significantly with renal function and renal arteriosclerotic change. This parameter could provide additional information about renal arteriosclerotic change independent of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria, and should be considered a therapeutic target for renal protection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Arteriosclerosis / physiopathology
  • Blood Flow Velocity / physiology
  • Blood Pressure / physiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate / physiology
  • Humans
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Hypertension / drug therapy
  • Hypertension / physiopathology
  • Kidney / diagnostic imaging
  • Kidney / physiology*
  • Kidney / physiopathology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / diagnostic imaging
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / physiopathology
  • Kidney Function Tests
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Proteinuria / diagnostic imaging
  • Proteinuria / physiopathology
  • Renal Circulation / physiology
  • Ultrasonography, Doppler
  • Vascular Resistance / physiology


  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors