Randomized comparison between mild and moderate hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass for neonatal arterial switch operation

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2012 Mar;41(3):581-6. doi: 10.1093/ejcts/ezr002. Epub 2011 Oct 18.

Abstract

Objectives: To compare neonates receiving arterial switch operation (ASO) either with mild or moderate hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass.

Methods: Forty neonates undergoing ASO were randomized to receive either mild (Mi > 32 °C, n = 20) or moderate (Mo > 26 °C, n = 20) hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) between April 2007 and June 2010. All patients were diagnosed with simple transposition of the great arteries. Mean age (Mi: 8.32 ± 4.5 days, Mo: 7.54 ± 5.0 days, P = 0.21) and body weight were similar in both groups (Mi: 3.64 ± 0.91 kg, Mo: 3.73 ± 0.84 kg, P = 0.14). Follow-up was 3.1 ± 2.5 years for all patients.

Results: Lowest perioperative rectal temperature was 33.5 ± 1.4 °C (Mi) versus 28.2 ± 2.1 °C (Mo) (P < 0.001). All patients safely weaned from CPB required lower doses of dopamine (Mi: 5.1 ± 2.4 µg/kg min, Mo: 6.5 ± 2.1 µ/kg min, P = 0.04), dobutamine (Mi: 7.2 ± 2.5 µg/kg min, Mo: 8.6 ± 2.4 µ/kg min, P = 0.04) and adrenalin (Mi: 0.02 ± 0.02 µg/kg min, Mo: 0.05 ± 0.03 µ/kg min, P = 0.03) in mild hypothermia group. Intraoperative blood transfusion (Mi: 190 ± 58 ml, Mo: 230 ± 24 ml, P = 0.03) and postoperative lactate levels (Mi: 2.7 ± 0.9 mmol/l, Mo: 3.1 ± 2.2 mmol/l, P = 0.02) were lower under mild hypothermia. Secondary chest closure was performed in 30% (Mi) versus 35% (Mo) (P = 0.65). Duration of inotropic support (Mi: 7 (4-11) days, Mo: 11 (7-15) days, P = 0.03), time to extubation (Mi: 108 (88-128) h, Mo: 128 (102-210) h, P = 0.04), lengths of intensive care unit (ICU) stay (Mi: 9 (5-14) days, Mo: 12 (10-18) days, P = 0.04) and hospital stay (Mi: 19 (10-29) days, Mo: 23 (15-37) days, P = 0.04) were significantly shorter under mild hypothermia. Two-year freedom from reoperation was 100% for both the groups.

Conclusions: The ASO under mild hypothermia seemed to be beneficial for pulmonary recovery, need for inotropic support and length of ICU and hospital stay. No worse early- or intermediate-term effects of mild hypothermia were found.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Anesthesia, General / methods
  • Body Temperature
  • Body Weight
  • Cardiopulmonary Bypass / methods*
  • Cardiotonic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hypothermia, Induced / methods*
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data
  • Postoperative Care / methods
  • Transposition of Great Vessels / surgery*

Substances

  • Cardiotonic Agents