The goal of systems biology is to access and integrate information about the parts (e.g., genes, proteins, cells) of a biological system with a view to computing and predicting the behavior of the system. The past decade has witnessed technological revolutions in the capacity to make high throughput measurements about the behavior of genes, proteins, and cells. Such technologies are widely used in biological research and in medicine, such as toward prognosis and therapy response prediction in cancer patients. More recently, systems biology is being applied to vaccinology, with the goal of: (1) understanding the mechanisms by which vaccines stimulate protective immunity, and (2) predicting the immunogenicity or efficacy of vaccines. Here, we review the recent advances in this area, and highlight the biological and computational challenges posed.
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