Does the fat-protein meal increase postprandial glucose level in type 1 diabetes patients on insulin pump: the conclusion of a randomized study

Diabetes Technol Ther. 2012 Jan;14(1):16-22. doi: 10.1089/dia.2011.0083. Epub 2011 Oct 20.


Background: Our study examines the hypothesis that in addition to sugar starch-type diet, a fat-protein meal elevates postprandial glycemia as well, and it should be included in calculated prandial insulin dose accordingly. The goal was to determine the impact of the inclusion of fat-protein nutrients in the general algorithm for the mealtime insulin dose calculator on 6-h postprandial glycemia.

Subjects and methods: Of 26 screened type 1 diabetes patients using an insulin pump, 24 were randomly assigned to an experimental Group A and to a control Group B. Group A received dual-wave insulin boluses for their pizza dinner, consisting of 45 g/180 kcal of carbohydrates and 400 kcal from fat-protein where the insulin dose was calculated using the following algorithm: n Carbohydrate Units×ICR+n Fat-Protein Units×ICR/6 h (standard+extended insulin boluses), where ICR represents the insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio. For the control Group B, the algorithm used was n Carbohydrate Units×ICR. The glucose, C-peptide, and glucagon concentrations were evaluated before the meal and at 30, 60, 120, 240, and 360 min postprandial.

Results: There were no statistically significant differences involving patients' metabolic control, C-peptide, glucagon secretion, or duration of diabetes between Group A and B. In Group A the significant glucose increment occurred at 120-360 min, with its maximum at 240 min: 60.2 versus -3.0 mg/dL (P=0.04), respectively. There were no significant differences in glucagon and C-peptide concentrations postprandial.

Conclusions: A mixed meal effectively elevates postprandial glycemia after 4-6 h. Dual-wave insulin bolus, in which insulin is calculated for both the carbohydrates and fat proteins, is effective in controlling postprandial glycemia.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring
  • C-Peptide / metabolism
  • Child
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / physiopathology
  • Dietary Fats / pharmacology*
  • Dietary Proteins / pharmacology*
  • Female
  • Glucagon / metabolism
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia / metabolism
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Insulin / therapeutic use*
  • Insulin Infusion Systems
  • Male
  • Postprandial Period*


  • Blood Glucose
  • C-Peptide
  • Dietary Fats
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • Glucagon