Background: We recently reported use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treating keloid disease (KD). However, in view of high recurrence rates post any treatment modality, adjuvant therapies should be considered. Additionally, we previously demonstrated the effect of a novel electrical waveform, the degenerate wave (DW) on differential gene expression in keloid fibroblasts.
Objective: In this study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic effect of PDT at 5J/cm(2) and 10J/cm(2) of red light (633 ± 3nm) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) with and without DW, on keloid fibroblasts compared to normal skin fibroblasts.
Methods: The rate of intracellular photosensitizer (protoporphyrin IX, PPIX) generation and disintegration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, LDH cytotoxicity, WST-1 cytoproliferation, apoptosis by Caspase-3 activation, mitochondrial membrane potential assessment by JC-1 aggregates, qRT-PCR, flow cytometry and In-Cell Western Blotting were performed.
Results: PPIX accumulation and disintegration rate was higher in keloid than normal fibroblasts after incubation with MAL compared to ALA. Increased cytotoxicity and decreased cytoproliferation were observed for keloid fibroblasts after PDT+DW treatment compared to PDT alone. ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, apoptosis (Caspase-3 activation) and collagens I and III gene down-regulation were higher in keloid compared to normal skin fibroblasts after MAL-PDT+DW treatment. An increase in the number of cells entering apoptosis and necrosis was observed after PDT+DW treatment by flow cytometry analysis. All positive findings were statistically significant (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The cytotoxic effect of PDT on keloid fibroblasts can be enhanced significantly with addition of DW stimulation, indicating for the first time the utility of this potential combinational therapy.
Copyright Â© 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.