Looking to the future: biomarkers in the management of pancreatic adenocarcinoma

Int J Mol Sci. 2011;12(9):5895-907. doi: 10.3390/ijms12095895. Epub 2011 Sep 14.


The incidence and mortality of pancreas cancer converge. There has been little advancement in the treatment of pancreas cancer since the acceptance of gemcitabine as the standard therapy. Unfortunately, the efficacy of gemcitabine is dismal. While there is much discussion for the development of biomarkers to help direct therapy in this area, there is little action to move them into clinical practice. Herein, we review potential pancreatic cancer biomarkers and discuss the limitations in their implementation.

Keywords: SPARC; biomarker; cDK; clinical trials; gemcitabine; hCNT3; hENT1; oxaliplatin; pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis
  • Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy*
  • Adenocarcinoma / metabolism
  • Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use*
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care / methods
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensitivity and Specificity


  • Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
  • Biomarkers, Tumor