Apparent temperature and cause-specific mortality in Copenhagen, Denmark: a case-crossover analysis

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Sep;8(9):3712-27. doi: 10.3390/ijerph8093712. Epub 2011 Sep 16.


Temperature, a key climate change indicator, is expected to increase substantially in the Northern Hemisphere, with potentially grave implications for human health. This study is the first to investigate the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tapp(max)), and respiratory, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality in Copenhagen (1999-2006) using a case-crossover design. Susceptibility was investigated for age, sex, socio-economic status and place of death. For an inter-quartile range (7 °C) increase in Tapp(max), an inverse association was found with cardiovascular mortality (-7% 95% CI -13%; -1%) and none with respiratory and cerebrovascular mortality. In the cold period all associations were inverse, although insignificant.

Keywords: cardiovascular; case-crossover; cerebrovascular; epidemiology; mortality; respiratory; temperature.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Air Pollutants / analysis
  • Carbon Monoxide / analysis
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality*
  • Cause of Death
  • Denmark / epidemiology
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Epidemiological Monitoring
  • Female
  • Hospitals / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Humidity
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nitrogen Dioxide / analysis
  • Particulate Matter / analysis
  • Patient Admission / statistics & numerical data
  • Respiratory Tract Diseases / mortality*
  • Temperature*
  • Young Adult


  • Air Pollutants
  • Particulate Matter
  • Carbon Monoxide
  • Nitrogen Dioxide