The two key components in pulpal inflammation are microcirculation and sensory nerve activity. With advancement of techniques they can be measured simultaneously in the same tooth. Excitation of A-delta fibers seems to have an insignificant effect on pulpal blood flow (PBF), whereas C fiber activation causes an increase in PBF. This C fiber-induced PBF increase is caused by neurokinins, especially substance P, which is released from the C fiber nerve terminals. Manipulation of PBF has varying effects on sensory nerve activity. An increase in PBF causes excitation of both A-delta and C fibers via an increase in tissue pressure, whereas flow reduction has an inhibitory effect on A-delta fibers, but no discernible effect on C fiber activity. Understanding of this complex neurovascular relationship in the pulp, especially given the fact that the pulp is in a low compliance system, is prerequisite to more comprehensive characterization of pulpal inflammation.