Interest in diseases of the arteries during the juvenile period is evident during the first half of this century. In the 1950s, it was clearly demonstrated that the early lesions of atherosclerosis were detectable in children and, especially, in adolescents. By the end of the 1960s, the scope of early atherosclerotic changes in the arteries of juveniles became firmly established. In the 1970s, the search for adult risk factors in juveniles began in earnest. In the 1980s, adult risk factors were identified in juveniles and correlated with pathologic changes. The therapeutic issues that involve life-long compliance in high-risk children and adolescents are unique to this age group.