Background: Dolutegravir (S/GSK1349572) is a new HIV-1 integrase inhibitor that has antiviral activity with once daily, unboosted dosing. SPRING-1 is an ongoing study designed to select a dose for phase 3 assessment. We present data from preplanned primary and interim analyses.
Methods: In a phase 2b, multicentre, dose-ranging study, treatment-naive adults were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to receive 10 mg, 25 mg, or 50 mg dolutegravir or 600 mg efavirenz. Dose but not drug allocation was masked. Randomisation was by a central integrated voice-response system according to a computer-generated code. Study drugs were given with either tenofovir plus emtricitabine or abacavir plus lamivudine. Our study was done at 34 sites in France, Germany, Italy, Russia, Spain, and the USA beginning on July 9, 2009. Eligible participants were seropositive for HIV-1, aged 18 years or older, and had plasma HIV RNA viral loads of at least 1000 copies per mL and CD4 counts of at least 200 cells per μL. Our primary endpoint was the proportion of participants with viral load of less than 50 copies per mL at week 16 and we present data to week 48. Analyses were done on the basis of allocation group and included all participants who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00951015.
Findings: 205 patients were randomly allocated and received at least one dose of study drug: 53, 51, and 51 to receive 10 mg, 25 mg, and 50 mg dolutegravir, respectively, and 50 to receive efavirenz. Week 16 response rates to viral loads of at most 50 copies per mL were 93% (144 of 155 participants) for all doses of dolutegravir (with little difference between dose groups) and 60% (30 of 50) for efavirenz; week 48 response rates were 87% (139 of 155) for all doses of dolutegravir and 82% (41 of 50) for efavirenz. Response rates between nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor subgroups were similar. We identified three virological failures in the dolutegravir groups and one in the efavirenz group-we did not identify any integrase inhibitor mutations. We did not identify any dose-related clinical or laboratory toxic effects, with more drug-related adverse events of moderate-or-higher intensity in the efavirenz group (20%) than the dolutegravir group (8%). We did not judge that any serious adverse events were related to dolutegravir.
Interpretation: Dolutegravir was effective when given once daily without a pharmacokinetic booster and was well tolerated at all assessed doses. Our findings support the assessment of once daily 50 mg dolutegravir in phase 3 trials.
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