Cervical human papillomavirus infection in Mexican women with systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis

Lupus. 2012 Apr;21(4):365-72. doi: 10.1177/0961203311425517. Epub 2011 Oct 21.


Cervical human papillomavirus (HPV+) infection is associated with an increased risk of cervical dysplasia. Although the frequency of HPV+ in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been investigated in some races its prevalence in Hispanic women is still unknown. This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of cervical HPV+ in Mexican women with SLE (n = 34) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n = 43) and in healthy controls (n = 146). These women were interviewed about risk factors for sexually transmitted infections and cervical cytology analysis was performed. HPV+ viral types were identified using PCR: HPV+ was observed in 14.7% of SLE, 27.9% of RA and 30.8% of controls. High-risk HPV types were observed in 11.7% of women with SLE, 27.9% of women with RA, and in 26% of the controls. High-risk viral types 58, 35 and 18 were the most frequently identified in SLE. Two women with SLE had a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and one had cervical cancer. An association was observed between methotrexate utilization, longer duration of therapy with prednisone, and HPV+ in RA or SLE. Thus, there is a high prevalence of cervical HPV infection in Mexican women with SLE or RA, and physicians must be vigilant in preventing the development of cervical dysplasia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Alphapapillomavirus / genetics
  • Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification*
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / epidemiology*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • DNA, Viral / isolation & purification
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / epidemiology*
  • Mexico / epidemiology
  • Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis
  • Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / virology
  • Prevalence
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / diagnosis
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / epidemiology*
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / virology
  • Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / diagnosis
  • Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / epidemiology*
  • Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / virology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • Vaginal Smears


  • DNA, Viral