The Movement Disorder Society Evidence-Based Medicine Review Update: Treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease

Mov Disord. 2011 Oct;26 Suppl 3:S2-41. doi: 10.1002/mds.23829.


The objective was to update previous evidence-based medicine reviews of treatments for motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease published between 2002 and 2005. Level I (randomized, controlled trial) reports of pharmacological, surgical, and nonpharmacological interventions for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease between January 2004 (2001 for nonpharmacological) and December 2010 were reviewed. Criteria for inclusion, clinical indications, ranking, efficacy conclusions, safety, and implications for clinical practice followed the original program outline and adhered to evidence-based medicine methodology. Sixty-eight new studies qualified for review. Piribedil, pramipexole, pramipexole extended release, ropinirole, rotigotine, cabergoline, and pergolide were all efficacious as symptomatic monotherapy; ropinirole prolonged release was likely efficacious. All were efficacious as a symptomatic adjunct except pramipexole extended release, for which there is insufficient evidence. For prevention/delay of motor fluctuations, pramipexole and cabergoline were efficacious, and for prevention/delay of dyskinesia, pramipexole, ropinirole, ropinirole prolonged release, and cabergoline were all efficacious, whereas pergolide was likely efficacious. Duodenal infusion of levodopa was likely efficacious in the treatment of motor complications, but the practice implication is investigational. Entacapone was nonefficacious as a symptomatic adjunct to levodopa in nonfluctuating patients and nonefficacious in the prevention/delay of motor complications. Rasagiline conclusions were revised to efficacious as a symptomatic adjunct, and as treatment for motor fluctuations. Clozapine was efficacious in dyskinesia, but because of safety issues, the practice implication is possibly useful. Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation, bilateral globus pallidus stimulation, and unilateral pallidotomy were updated to efficacious for motor complications. Physical therapy was revised to likely efficacious as symptomatic adjunct therapy. This evidence-based medicine review updates the field and highlights gaps for research.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acupuncture Therapy
  • Antiparkinson Agents / classification
  • Antiparkinson Agents / therapeutic use
  • Deep Brain Stimulation
  • Evidence-Based Medicine*
  • Fetal Stem Cells / transplantation
  • Humans
  • Motor Activity
  • Pallidotomy
  • Parkinson Disease / drug therapy
  • Parkinson Disease / physiopathology
  • Parkinson Disease / rehabilitation
  • Parkinson Disease / surgery
  • Parkinson Disease / therapy*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Thalamus / surgery
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Antiparkinson Agents