Objectives: To determine whether polymorphisms at codon 487 (*1, GAA=Glu; *2, AAA=Lys) of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) influence nitroglycerine (glyceryl trinitrate (GTN))-induced vasodilation, and whether GTN or isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) is a more effective antianginal agent in each ALDH2 genotype.
Design: A randomised, open-label, crossover trial with 117 healthy Japanese (20-39 years) whose genotypes were determined (*1/*1, n=47; *1/*2, n=48; *2/*2, n=22) was performed at Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan. Participants were randomly assigned to treatment: sublingual spray of GTN (0.3 mg) or ISDN (1.25 mg). After ≥ 1 week, measurements were repeated using the other drug. The main outcome measures were the maximal rate of increase in the brachial artery diameter determined by ultrasonography, the time required to attain maximal dilation (T(max)) and the time required to attain 90% maximal dilation (T(0.9)).
Results: The maximal artery diameter increase in response to GTN or ISDN did not differ among genotypes. However, GTN T(max) was significantly longer for *2/*2 (299.7 s, 269.0-330.4) than *1/*1 (254.7 s, 238.6-273.4; p=0.0190). GTN T(0.9) was significantly longer in the *1/*2 (206.1 s, 191.7-219.3) and *2/*2 (231.4 s, 211.8-251.0) genotypes than *1/*1 (174.9 s, 161.5-188.3; p=0.0068, p<0.0001, respectively). In contrast, the time-course of ISDN-induced vasodilation did not differ among genotypes. GTN T(max) and T(0.9) among *1 allele carriers (*1/*1 and *1/*2) were significantly shorter than those of ISDN, whereas the time course of GTN and ISDN vasodilation did not differ among participants carrying *2/*2.
Conclusions: The amplitude of GTN-induced vasodilation was not influenced by the ALDH2 genotype, but the response was significantly delayed in *2 allele carriers, especially *2/*2. GTN dilated the artery more quickly than ISDN in *1/*1 and *1/*2, but not in *2/*2. Trial registration number UMIN000001492 (UMIN-CTR database).