Criteria for identifying Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) and distinguishing HSP from other forms of systemic arteritis were developed by comparing the manifestations in 85 patients who had HSP with those of 722 control patients with other forms of vasculitis. By the traditional format of choosing different combinations of candidate criteria and comparing the combinations for their ability to separate HSP cases from controls, 4 criteria were identified: age less than or equal to 20 years at disease onset, palpable purpura, acute abdominal pain, and biopsy showing granulocytes in the walls of small arterioles or venules. The presence of any 2 or more of these criteria distinguish HSP from other forms of vasculitis with a sensitivity of 87.1% and a specificity of 87.7%. The criteria selected by a classification tree method were similar: palpable purpura, age less than or equal to 20 years at disease onset, biopsy showing granulocytes around arterioles or venules, and gastrointestinal bleeding. These were able to distinguish HSP from other forms of vasculitis with a sensitivity of 89.4% and a specificity of 88.1%.