Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at higher risk of developing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). However, there are limited data for this disease. To evaluate risk factors and the clinical characteristics of IPA in COPD patients, we conducted a hospital-based, retrospective case-control study of 30 COPD patients with IPA and 60 COPD control patients without IPA. Patients in the case group were significantly more likely to have concurrent co-morbidities than controls. Of the IPA patients, 65.4% had worsening radiological findings vs. 11.4% in the control group (p<0.001). IPA in COPD was associated with a higher proportion of mechanical ventilation (43.3% vs. 5%; p<0.001), a longer hospital stay duration (45.8±39.1 days vs. 18.4±11.8 days; p<0.001), and higher mortality (43.3% vs. 11.4%; p<0.001). Systemic use of steroids in the stable phase, treatment with three or more antibiotics during hospitalization and antibiotic treatment longer than 10 days were independent risk factors associated with IPA. COPD patients with obvious dyspnoea, antibiotic-resistant lower respiratory tract infection and repeated detection of Aspergillus in sputum should be considered for the possibility of IPA.
© 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.