Peptides and proteins are the most diverse building blocks in biomolecular self-assembly in terms of chemistry, nanostructure formation and functionality. Self-assembly is an intrinsic property of peptides. In this chapter, we attempt to address the following issues: How can we synthesize a self-assembling peptide? What are the fundamental physical and chemical principles that underpin peptide self-assembly? How can we learn to finely control peptide self-assembly? The merits of answering these questions are inspiring both for biology and medicine in terms of new opportunities for understanding, preventing and curing of diseases, and for nanotechnology in terms of new prescribed routes to achieving peptide-based nanostructures with a range of properties appropriate for specific applications.