The purpose of this investigation was to determine the comparative surface roughness produced by various oral hygiene instruments and materials on titanium implant abutments. Ten Brånemark titanium abutment cylinders were used, with one serving as an untreated control. One abutment was used to evaluate each of nine oral hygiene instrumentation methods used for specified lengths of time or instrument strokes. Each abutment was sonically cleaned, air dried, and viewed with a scanning electron microscope. Polaroid photomicrographs were made of abutment surfaces at predetermined magnifications. They were analyzed by three investigators, who compared individual test parameters in terms of time application or stroke number. The resulting abutment surface roughness was also evaluated. The rubber cup with flour of pumice created a smoother surface than the control; the interdental brush, soft nylon toothbrush, plastic scaler, Eva plastic tip, rubber cup, and Cavi-jet left a surface comparable to the control; the metal scalers and the Cavitron created a severely roughened surface.