Pituitary lesions, albeit relatively infrequent, can significantly alter the quality of life. This article highlights the role of advanced imaging modalities in evaluating pituitary-hypothalamic axis lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the examination of choice for evaluating hypothalamic-pituitary-related endocrine diseases. Advanced MR techniques discussed in this article include dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, 3T MRI, magnetization transfer (MT) imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), proton MR spectroscopy, fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, intraoperative MRI, and intraoperative real-time ultrasonography.
Keywords: Computed tomography; imaging; magnetic resonance imaging; pituitary; recent advances.