Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH

J Biomed Opt. 2011 Oct;16(10):100503. doi: 10.1117/1.3644495.


pH is a tightly regulated indicator of metabolic activity. In mammalian systems, an imbalance of pH regulation may result from or result in serious illness. In this paper, we report photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of a commercially available pH-sensitive fluorescent dye (SNARF-5F carboxylic acid) in tissue phantoms. We demonstrated that PAM is capable of pH imaging in absolute values at tissue depths of up to 2.0 mm, greater than possible with other forms of optical microscopy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Benzopyrans
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Mice
  • Microscopy / instrumentation
  • Microscopy / methods*
  • Naphthols
  • Optical Devices
  • Optical Phenomena
  • Phantoms, Imaging
  • Photoacoustic Techniques / instrumentation
  • Photoacoustic Techniques / methods*
  • Rhodamines


  • Benzopyrans
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Naphthols
  • Rhodamines
  • carboxy-seminaphthorhodaminefluoride