In the management of traumatic peripheral nerve injuries, the severity or degree of injury dictates the decision making between surgical management versus conservative management and serial examination. This review explores some of the recent literature, specifically addressing recent basic science advances in end-to-side and reverse end-to-side recovery, Schwann cell migration, and neuropathic pain. The management of nerve gaps, including the use of nerve conduits and acellularized nerve allografts, is examined. Current commonly performed nerve transfers are detailed with focus on both motor and sensory nerve transfers, their indications, and a basic overview of selected surgical techniques.
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