Epidemiology of concussion and mild traumatic brain injury

PM R. 2011 Oct;3(10 Suppl 2):S354-8. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2011.07.017.


Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common public health concern that affects millions of people each year. The available epidemiology of mTBI may contain insights that can guide future identification, prevention, and treatment efforts. This article discusses epidemiology of both non-sports-related mTBI and sports-related concussion. Specific occupational factors, emergency department data, and meta-analysis regarding mTBI are reviewed and discussed. With regard to sports concussion, the article will discuss data related to the sport played, the individual's position, level of play, and gender differences. Although males make up a larger percentage of cases than do females throughout the majority of reviewed non-sports-related mTBI data, the sports literature indicates that rates are higher in women when similar sports are compared. Identifiable risk factors within sports include female gender, sport, and position played. Emerging trends across mTBI include increased incidence and decreased rate of hospitalization for mTBI.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Athletic Injuries / epidemiology
  • Brain Concussion / epidemiology*
  • Brain Injuries / epidemiology*
  • Emergency Service, Hospital
  • Female
  • Hospitalization / statistics & numerical data
  • Hospitalization / trends
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Military Personnel
  • Occupational Injuries / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / epidemiology