We tested the interaction of 72 kinase inhibitors with 442 kinases covering >80% of the human catalytic protein kinome. Our data show that, as a class, type II inhibitors are more selective than type I inhibitors, but that there are important exceptions to this trend. The data further illustrate that selective inhibitors have been developed against the majority of kinases targeted by the compounds tested. Analysis of the interaction patterns reveals a class of 'group-selective' inhibitors broadly active against a single subfamily of kinases, but selective outside that subfamily. The data set suggests compounds to use as tools to study kinases for which no dedicated inhibitors exist. It also provides a foundation for further exploring kinase inhibitor biology and toxicity, as well as for studying the structural basis of the observed interaction patterns. Our findings will help to realize the direct enabling potential of genomics for drug development and basic research about cellular signaling.