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, 44 (2), 176-82

A Mechanism of Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-Based Activation Motif (ITAM)-like Sequences in the Capsid Protein VP2 in Viral Growth and Pathogenesis of Coxsackievirus B3

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A Mechanism of Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-Based Activation Motif (ITAM)-like Sequences in the Capsid Protein VP2 in Viral Growth and Pathogenesis of Coxsackievirus B3

Dae-Sun Kim et al. Virus Genes.

Abstract

Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is an RNA virus that mainly causes myocarditis. We have reported previously that immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-like sequences are contained in the capsid protein VP2 of CVB3. The substitution of two tyrosines for phenylalanines in the ITAM-like region causes attenuation of CVB3, possibly via defective viral assembly. In this study, we found that Syk, a downstream molecule of ITAM, interacts with the wild-type (WT) CVB3 VP0 protein, but not with the mutant CVB3 VP0 (called YYFF), and that an inhibitor of Syk reduced the growth of CVB3. The WT CVB3 activated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), a protein activated by ITAM, and eventually induced the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6)-one of the proinflammatory cytokines induced by NF-κB-in macrophages. However, the YYFF form did not. In addition, viral VP2 protein may be dependent on the phosphorylation of an ITAM-like region that affected the activation of NF-κB. Taken together, these results suggest that the ITAM-like sequences in CVB3 VP2 can not only affect viral structure but also act as signals in pathogenesis.

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