SCID resulting from mutations in IL2RG or JAK3 is characterized by lack of T and natural killer cells; B cells are present in normal number, but antibody responses are defective. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative for SCID. However, B-cell dysfunction persists in a substantial proportion of patients. We hypothesized that impaired B-cell responses after HCT in IL2RG/JAK3 deficiency results from poor donor B-cell engraftment and defective γc-dependent cytokine signaling in host B cells. To test this, and to identify which γc cytokine(s) is critical for humoral immunity, we studied 28 transplanted patients with IL2RG/JAK3 deficiency. Lack of donor B-cell engraftment associated with persistent humoral dysfunction and significantly reduced memory B cells. B-cell proliferation induced by CD40L alone or together with CpG, anti-Ig, IL-4, IL-10, or IL-13 was comparable in healthy controls and in post-HCT SCID patients, irrespective of their chimerism status. However, in vitro stimulation with CD40L/IL-21 induced B-cell proliferation, plasmablast differentiation, and antibody secretion in patients with donor B cells, but not in patients with autologous B cells. These data imply that IL-21-mediated signaling is critical for long-lived humoral immunity and to restore antibody responses in IL2RG/JAK3-deficient patients after HCT. Furthermore, in vitro stimulation with CD40L/IL-21 can predict in vivo B-cell immunity in IL2RG/JAK3 SCID after transplantation.