Association between feeling upon awakening and use of information technology devices in Japanese children

J Epidemiol. 2012;22(1):12-20. doi: 10.2188/jea.je20110019. Epub 2011 Oct 29.


Background: The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between feeling upon awakening (FA) and time spent using information technology (IT) devices by children in kindergartens, elementary schools, and junior high schools in Shimane, Japan.

Methods: In October 2008, a self-report survey was distributed to 2075 children in kindergartens (n = 261), elementary schools (n = 1162), and junior high schools (n = 652) in Shimane, Japan. The questionnaire gathered data on sex, school year, feeling upon awakening, and time spent using IT devices after school (television, videos on television, video games, personal computers, and cellular phones). After adjusting for sex and school year, data were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: A total of 2030 children completed this survey (response rate, 97.8%). Negative FA was associated with watching television more than 2 hours/day (OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.23-1.85), playing video games more than 30 minutes/day (1.50, 1.20-1.87), and using personal computers more than 30 minutes/day (1.35, 1.04-1.75).

Conclusions: Time spent using IT devices affected the FA of children in kindergarten through junior high school. We propose the development of guidelines regarding the appropriate amount of time this population should spend using IT devices.

MeSH terms

  • Cell Phone / statistics & numerical data*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Emotions*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Japan
  • Male
  • Microcomputers / statistics & numerical data*
  • Odds Ratio
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Television / statistics & numerical data*
  • Time Factors
  • Video Games / statistics & numerical data*
  • Wakefulness*