Lymphadenectomy in urologic oncology: pathologic considerations

Urol Clin North Am. 2011 Nov;38(4):483-95, vii. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2011.07.001. Epub 2011 Sep 21.


Lymphadenectomy (LAD) is an important staging and treatment modality of oncologic surgery. LAD in genitourinary malignancies presents inherent difficulties to the urologist and pathologist because of the differences in anatomic sites and primary histologic type. This review focuses on pathologic evaluation and how communication between urologist and pathologist is necessary to provide optimal care. Recommendations covering general specimen submission and processing are discussed, as well as more specific recommendations concerning the kidney, upper urinary tract, urinary bladder, prostate, testes, and penis. Emerging areas of prognostic significance and the impact that improved molecular techniques are contributing to diagnostic interpretation are highlighted.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biopsy, Needle
  • Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / mortality
  • Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology*
  • Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Lymph Node Excision / methods*
  • Lymph Nodes / pathology*
  • Male
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Assessment
  • Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • Survival Analysis
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Urogenital Neoplasms / mortality
  • Urogenital Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Urogenital Neoplasms / surgery