900-MHz microwave radiation promotes oxidation in rat brain

Electromagn Biol Med. 2011 Dec;30(4):219-34. doi: 10.3109/15368378.2011.587930.


Recently, there have been several reports referring to detrimental effects due to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) exposure. Special attention was given to investigate the effect of mobile phone exposure on the rat brain. Since the integrative mechanism of the entire body lies in the brain, it is suggestive to analyze its biochemical aspects. For this, 35-day old Wistar rats were exposed to a mobile phone for 2 h per day for a duration of 45 days where specific absorption rate (SAR) was 0.9 W/Kg. Animals were divided in two groups: sham exposed (n = 6) and exposed group (n = 6). Our observations indicate a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the level of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and an increase in catalase activity. Moreover, protein kinase shows a significant decrease in exposed group (P < 0.05) of hippocampus and whole brain. Also, a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the level of pineal melatonin and a significant increase (P < 0.05) in creatine kinase and caspase 3 was observed in exposed group of whole brain as compared with sham exposed. Finally, a significant increase in the level of ROS (reactive oxygen species) (P < 0.05) was also recorded. The study concludes that a reduction or an increase in antioxidative enzyme activities, protein kinase C, melatonin, caspase 3, and creatine kinase are related to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in animals under mobile phone radiation exposure. Our findings on these biomarkers are clear indications of possible health implications.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Antioxidants / radiation effects
  • Brain / enzymology
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Brain / radiation effects*
  • Catalase / metabolism
  • Catalase / radiation effects
  • Cell Phone*
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / radiation effects
  • Male
  • Melatonin / metabolism
  • Melatonin / radiation effects
  • Microwaves*
  • Oxidation-Reduction / radiation effects
  • Protein Kinase C / metabolism
  • Protein Kinase C / radiation effects
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / radiation effects
  • Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism
  • Superoxide Dismutase / radiation effects
  • Time Factors


  • Antioxidants
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Catalase
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Protein Kinase C
  • Melatonin