Risk for permanent pacemaker after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: a comprehensive analysis of the literature

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2012 Apr;23(4):391-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2011.02211.x. Epub 2011 Nov 3.


Background: Permanent pacemaker (PM) requirement is a known complication after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). There are, however, no systematic data concerning this complication.

Objective: To determine the incidence and potential predictors of permanent PM requirement after TAVI based on published literature.

Methods: We conducted a MEDLINE search to identify potentially relevant literature dealing with PM requirement after TAVI. Data were collected on paper extraction forms by 2 independent investigators.

Results: There were 32 relevant published studies comprising data of 5,258 patients without an implanted PM before TAVI. An Edwards-Sapiens® prosthesis (ESP) was implanted in 2,887 patients, whereas 2,371 patients received a CoreValve® prosthesis (CVP). The crude incidence of PM implantation after TAVI was 15%. Six hundred and fourteen of 2,371 (25.8%) CVP patients and 189 of the 2,887 (6.5%) ESP patients had to receive a permanent PM (odds ratio [OR] 4.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.12-5.86, P < 0.001). Presence of right bundle branch block (RBBB) before TAVI was a significant predictor for development of complete atrioventricular (AV) block and subsequent PM need (OR 1.358, 95% CI 1.001-1.841, P = 0.02). More than 90% of all AV-block requiring PM implantation occurred immediately or within 7 days after TAVI.

Conclusion: Patients undergoing TAVI with implantation of CVP are at significantly higher risk for development of AV block and subsequent need for permanent PM, particularly if RBBB preexists. Since AV block occurs in >90% within the first week after the procedure, careful monitoring should be performed for at least 7 days after TAVI.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis / therapy*
  • Atrioventricular Block / diagnosis
  • Atrioventricular Block / etiology
  • Atrioventricular Block / physiopathology
  • Atrioventricular Block / therapy*
  • Bundle-Branch Block / complications
  • Cardiac Catheterization / adverse effects*
  • Cardiac Catheterization / instrumentation
  • Cardiac Pacing, Artificial*
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Evidence-Based Medicine
  • Female
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation / adverse effects*
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation / instrumentation
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Odds Ratio
  • Pacemaker, Artificial
  • Prosthesis Design
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome