Treatment of adolescents with gender dysphoria in the Netherlands

Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2011 Oct;20(4):689-700. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2011.08.001.


In the Netherlands, gender dysphoric adolescents may be eligible for puberty suppression at age 12, subsequent cross-sex hormone treatment at age 16, and gender reassignment surgery at age 18. Initially, a thorough assessment is made of the gender dysphoria and vulnerabilities in functioning or circumstances. Psychological interventions and/or gender reassignment may be offered. Psychological interventions are offered if the adolescent needs to explore gender identity and treatment wishes, suffers from coexisting problems, or needs support and counseling during gender reassignment. Although more studies are necessary, this approach seems to contribute significantly to the well-being of gender dysphoric adolescents.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Estradiol / administration & dosage
  • Gender Identity*
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / administration & dosage
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives
  • Homosexuality
  • Humans
  • Netherlands
  • Psychotherapy*
  • Sex Reassignment Procedures*
  • Sex Reassignment Surgery*
  • Transsexualism / diagnosis
  • Transsexualism / therapy*


  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • Estradiol