Subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) represents a spectrum of pathology ranging from subacromial bursitis to rotator cuff tendinopathy and full-thickness rotator cuff tears. The relationship between subacromial impingement and rotator cuff disease in the etiology of rotator cuff injury is a matter of debate. Both extrinsic compression and intrinsic degeneration may play a role. Management includes physical therapy, injections, and, for some patients, surgery. There remains a need for high-quality studies of the pathology, etiology, and management of SIS.