Effect on intraocular pressure in patients receiving unilateral intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections

Ophthalmology. 2012 Feb;119(2):321-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.08.011. Epub 2011 Nov 4.


Purpose: We assessed the frequency and predictive factors related to intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients undergoing unilateral intravitreal ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab injections.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Participants: Charts of 207 patients with neovascular AMD who presented to a single physician at a retinal referral practice over a 6-month period were retrospectively reviewed.

Methods: Data recorded included demographic information, clinical findings, total number of bevacizumab and ranibizumab injections received and IOP at each visit. Increases above baseline IOP of >5, >10, or >15 mmHg on ≥2 consecutive visits while under treatment were noted.

Main outcome measures: The frequency of IOP elevation was compared between treated and untreated eyes. In addition, among treated eyes, frequency and odds ratio of experiencing IOP elevation >5 mmHg above baseline on ≥2 consecutive visits was stratified by number of injections. For the main regression analysis, the outcome variable was IOP elevation >5 mmHg on ≥2 consecutive visits and the main independent variable was total number of injections.

Results: On ≥2 consecutive visits, 11.6% of treated versus 5.3% of untreated/control eyes experienced IOP elevation of >5 mmHg. The mean number of injections was higher in those with (24.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 20.9-28.0; range, 9-39) than without IOP elevation of >5 mmHg (20.4; 95% CI, 18.9-21.8; range, 3-48) on ≥2 consecutive visits. There was an increased odds ratio (5.75; 95% CI, 1.19-27.8; P = 0.03) of experiencing IOP elevation >5 mmHg on ≥2 consecutive visits in patients receiving ≥29 injections compared with ≤12 injections. Of the factors considered, only the total number of injections showed a statistically significant association with IOP elevation >5 mmHg above baseline on ≥2 consecutive visits in treated eyes (P = 0.05).

Conclusions: A greater number of intravitreal anti-vasular endothelial growth factor injections is associated with an increased risk for IOP elevation >5 mmHg on ≥2 consecutive visits in eyes with neovascular AMD receiving intravitreal ranbizumab and/or bevacizumab.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage*
  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / adverse effects
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized / administration & dosage
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized / adverse effects
  • Bevacizumab
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intraocular Pressure / drug effects*
  • Intravitreal Injections
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Ocular Hypertension / chemically induced
  • Odds Ratio
  • Ranibizumab
  • Retreatment
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Wet Macular Degeneration / drug therapy*


  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
  • VEGFA protein, human
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Bevacizumab
  • Ranibizumab