Regulation of primary response genes

Mol Cell. 2011 Nov 4;44(3):348-60. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2011.09.014.


Primary response genes (PRGs) are a set of genes that are induced in response to both cell-extrinsic and cell-intrinsic signals and do not require de novo protein synthesis for their expression. These "first responders" in the waves of transcription of signal-responsive genes play pivotal roles in a wide range of biological responses, including neuronal survival and plasticity, cardiac stress response, innate and adaptive immune responses, glucose metabolism, and oncogeneic transformation. Here we bring together recent advances and our current understanding of the signal-induced transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of PRGs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Epigenesis, Genetic
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Humans
  • Immediate-Early Proteins / genetics*
  • Immediate-Early Proteins / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction / genetics
  • Time Factors
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • Immediate-Early Proteins