Aim: Recently, the concept that high density lipoprotein (HDL) quality is an important parameter for atheroprotection is gaining ground, though little data exists so far to support it. In an attempt to identify measurable qualitative parameters of HDL associated with increased risk for premature myocardial infarction (MI), we studied the structural characteristics of HDL from patients who survived an MI at a young age (≤35 years).
Methods and results: We studied 20 MI patients and 20 healthy control subjects. HDL of patients had reduced apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apolipoprotein M, and paraoxonase 1 levels and significantly elevated apolipoprotein C-III (apoCIII) levels (all p<0.05). Specifically, the HDL apoA-I/apoC-III ratio was 0.24±0.01 in patients versus 4.88±0.90 in controls (p<0.001). These structural alterations correlated with increased oxidation potential of HDL of the MI group compared to controls (2.5-fold, p=0.026). Electron microscopy showed no significant difference in average HDL particle diameter between the two groups though a significant difference existed in HDL diameter distribution, suggesting the presence of different HDL subpopulations in MI and control subjects. Indeed, non-denaturing two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed that MI patients had reduced pre-β1(α), pre-β1(b) and α(2), and elevated α(1), α(3), and pre-α(4) HDL.
Conclusions: Reduction in the HDL apoA-I/apoC-III ratio, changes in the HDL subpopulation distribution and an increase in HDL oxidation potential correlated with the development of MI in young patients. The possibility that such changes may serve as markers for the early identification of young individuals at high risk for an acute coronary event should be further explored.
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