Twenty-one patients were studied at rest and during exercise after heart transplantation to compare cardiac output measured by thermodilution and impedance cardiography. Exercise was performed on a bicycle ergometer over a limited range of work load (25 and 50 watt) whilst metabolic gas exchange was recorded. One patient was studied at rest whilst his circulation was maintained by a Jarvik-7 artificial heart. The values of cardiac output measured by impedance cardiography corresponded closely with the flow rate from the artificial heart. There was also close agreement between the impedance and thermodilution measurements of cardiac output at rest and during exercise. Both measurements followed the changes in heart rate and oxygen consumption. Both thermodilution and impedance cardiography methods elicited good reproducibility of cardiac output measurements at rest and during exercise. These observations suggest that the noninvasive and continuous record of cardiac output obtained by impedance cardiography can be used for the postoperative monitoring of heart transplant recipients.