Beneficial effect of probiotics in IBD: are peptidogycan and NOD2 the molecular key effectors?

Gut Microbes. 2011 Sep 1;2(5):280-6. doi: 10.4161/gmic.2.5.18255. Epub 2011 Sep 1.


Although the beneficial capacities of probiotics are more and more substantiated, their effects clearly depend on the strains used and their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Recent evidences have highlighted the potential role of cell-wall components in the anti-inflammatory capacity of selected lactobacilli. In this addendum, we summarize our recent results concerning the role of peptidoglycan (PGN) and NOD2 signaling in the regulation of intestinal inflammation. We showed that the protective effect of Lactobacillus PGN is strain-specific and linked to the induction of diverse immune regulatory pathways. Moreover the beneficial effect of Lactobacillus PGN correlated with the release of a specific muropeptide sensed by NOD2. These findings allow for a better understanding of how probiotic lactobacilli exert their beneficial effect and will help guide for more successful strain selection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions
  • Humans
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / genetics
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / immunology
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / microbiology
  • Lactobacillus / genetics
  • Lactobacillus / immunology
  • Lactobacillus / physiology
  • Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein / genetics
  • Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein / immunology*
  • Peptidoglycan / immunology*
  • Probiotics / administration & dosage*


  • Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein
  • Peptidoglycan