Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin is composed of the enzyme component (Ia) and the binding component (Ib). Ib binds to receptor on targeted cells and translocates Ia into the cytosol of the cells. Ia ADP-ribosylates actin, resulting in cell rounding and death. Comparisons of the deduced amino acid sequence from the gene and three-dimensional structure of Ia with those of ADP-ribosylating toxins (ARTs) suggests that there is striking structural similarity among these toxins. Our objectives are to review the recent advances in the character, structure-function, and the mode of action of iota-toxin by consideration of the findings about ARTs.
Keywords: ADP-ribosylating toxin; ADP-ribosyltransferase; Clostridium perfringens; NAD+-glycohydrolase; SN1 mechanism; crystal structure; endocytosis; internalization; iota-toxin.