Ochratoxin a in Portugal: a review to assess human exposure

Toxins (Basel). 2010 Jun;2(6):1225-49. doi: 10.3390/toxins2061225. Epub 2010 Jun 1.


In Portugal, the climate, dietary habits, and food contamination levels present the characteristics for higher population susceptibility to ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the known mycotoxins with the greatest public health and agro-economic importance. In this review, following a brief historical insight on OTA research, a summary of the available data on OTA occurrence in food (cereals, bread, wine, meat) and biological fluids (blood, urine) is made. With this data, an estimation of intake is made to ascertain and update the risk exposure estimation of the Portuguese population, in comparison to previous studies and other populations.

Keywords: Portugal; biomarker; bread; cereal; exposure; food; ochratoxin A; wine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Beverages
  • Bread
  • Edible Grain
  • Environmental Exposure / analysis*
  • Food Contamination / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Meat
  • Ochratoxins / analysis*
  • Portugal


  • Ochratoxins
  • ochratoxin A