Imaging of convection enhanced delivery of toxins in humans

Toxins (Basel). 2011 Mar;3(3):201-6. doi: 10.3390/toxins3030201. Epub 2011 Mar 15.


Drug delivery of immunotoxins to brain tumors circumventing the blood brain barrier is a significant challenge. Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) circumvents the blood brain barrier through direct intracerebral application using a hydrostatic pressure gradient to percolate therapeutic compounds throughout the interstitial spaces of infiltrated brain and tumors. The efficacy of CED is determined through the distribution of the therapeutic agent to the targeted region. The vast majority of patients fail to receive a significant amount of coverage of the area at risk for tumor recurrence. Understanding this challenge, it is surprising that so little work has been done to monitor the delivery of therapeutic agents using this novel approach. Here we present a review of imaging in convection enhanced delivery monitoring of toxins in humans, and discuss future challenges in the field.

Keywords: convection enhanced delivery; drug delivery; glioblastoma; imaging.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Blood-Brain Barrier / metabolism
  • Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Brain Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Convection*
  • Drug Delivery Systems / methods*
  • Gadolinium / administration & dosage
  • Glioblastoma / drug therapy*
  • Glioblastoma / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunotoxins / administration & dosage*
  • Immunotoxins / pharmacokinetics
  • Immunotoxins / therapeutic use
  • Liposomes
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging*
  • Tissue Distribution


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Immunotoxins
  • Liposomes
  • Gadolinium