Background: The continued presence of polio in northern India poses challenges to the interruption of wild poliovirus transmission and the management of poliovirus risks in the post-eradication era. We aimed to assess the current immunity profile after routine doses of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and numerous supplemental doses of type-1 monovalent OPV (mOPV1), and compared the effect of five vaccine formulations and dosages on residual immunity gaps.
Methods: We did a community-based, randomised controlled trial of healthy infants aged 6-9 months at ten sites in Moradabad, India. Serum neutralising antibody was measured before infants were randomly assigned to a study group and given standard-potency or higher-potency mOPV1, intradermal fractional-dose inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV, GlaxoSmithKline), or intramuscular full-dose IPV from two different manufacturers (GlaxoSmithKline or Panacea). Follow-up sera were taken at days 7 and 28. Our primary endpoint was an increase of more than four times in antibody titres. We did analyses by per-protocol in children with a blood sample available before, and 28 days after, receiving study vaccine (or who completed study procedures). This trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN90744784.
Findings: Of 1002 children enrolled, 869 (87%) completed study procedures (ie, blood sample available at day 0 and day 28). At baseline, 862 (99%), 625 (72%), and 418 (48%) had detectable antibodies to poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In children who were type-1 seropositive, an increase of more than four times in antibody titre was detected 28 days after they were given standard-potency mOPV1 (5/13 [38%]), higher-potency mOPV1 (6/21 [29%]), intradermal IPV (9/16 [56%]), GlaxoSmithKline intramuscular IPV (19/22 [86%]), and Panacea intramuscular IPV (11/13 [85%]). In those who were type-2 seronegative, 42 (100%) of 42 seroconverted after GlaxoSmithKline intramuscular IPV, and 24 (59%) of 41 after intradermal IPV (p<0·0001). 87 (90%) of 97 infants who were type-3 seronegative seroconverted after intramuscular IPV, and 21 (36%) of 49 after intradermal IPV (p<0·0001).
Interpretation: Supplemental mOPV1 resulted in almost total seroprevalence against poliovirus type 1, which is consistent with recent absence of poliomyelitis cases; whereas seroprevalence against types 2 and 3 was expected for routine vaccination histories. The immunogenicity of IPV produced in India (Panacea) was similar to that of an internationally manufactured IPV (GSK). Intradermal IPV was less immunogenic.
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