Vitamin D deficiency in obese children and its relationship to glucose homeostasis

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jan;97(1):279-85. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-1507. Epub 2011 Nov 9.

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in obese and non-overweight children in North Texas, to examine relationships between dietary habits and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level in obese children, and to examine the relationship between 25(OH)D level and markers of abnormal glucose metabolism and blood pressure.

Patients and methods: Using a cross-sectional design, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, dietary information, serum 25(OH)D, fasting glucose and insulin, 2-h glucose from oral glucose tolerance test, hemoglobin A1c, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were recorded for 411 obese subjects (6-16 yr old) at an obesity referral clinic. 25(OH)D was also obtained from 87 control non-overweight subjects (6-16 yr old).

Results: Ninety-two percent of obese subjects had a 25(OH)D level below 75 nmol/liter, and 50% were below 50 nmol/liter. Among non-overweight subjects, these frequencies were 68 and 22%, respectively (both P < 0.01 compared with obese subjects). 25(OH)D was negatively associated with soda intake (P < 0.001), juice intake (P = 0.009), and skipping breakfast (P < 0.001). 25(OH)D was negatively correlated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = -0.19; P = 0.001) and 2-h glucose (r = -0.12; P = 0.04) after adjustment for body mass index and age but was not correlated with hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure Z score, or diastolic blood pressure Z score.

Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is common in children in this southern United States location and is significantly more prevalent in obese children. Lower 25(OH)D level is associated with risk factors for type 2 diabetes in obese children.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Blood Glucose / physiology
  • Body Mass Index
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Ethnic Groups / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Homeostasis / physiology
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Male
  • Obesity / blood
  • Obesity / complications*
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Obesity / ethnology
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / epidemiology
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / ethnology

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin
  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D