Health behaviour, metabolic control and periodontal status in medically treated Chinese with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Ann R Australas Coll Dent Surg. 2008 Jun;19:102-10.


Objective: Relationships between demographic, health behaviour and diabetes mellitus (DM) parameters and periodontal status were assessed among a group of nonsmoking, low-income, middle-aged to elderly medically treated Hong Kong Chinese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).

Materials and methods: 193 Chinese, dentate, type 2 DM patients (56.5 +/- 9.0 years; recorded DM duration 7.0 +/- 5.2 years) attending a charity hospital specialist clinic were surveyed. Subject demography, periodontal status, Body Mass Index (BMI), DM control, serum TNF-alpha level and general health behaviour (GHB) were recorded.

Results: Periodontitis was prevalent (80.3% of subjects with PPD > or = 5 mm and 65.8% subjects with full-mouth mean PAL > 3.0 mm). Mean HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose and BMI were 7.6 +/- 1.6%, 8.2 +/- 2.9 mmol/L and 25.4 +/- 3.7 kg/m2 respectively. Serum TNF-alpha level was similar to the reported Chinese population norm. Full-mouth mean clinical attachment level was associated with DM duration while full-mouth mean probing pocket depth was associated with GHB (p < 0.05). The Gingival Index, was greater in men, and associated with higher HbA1c% and lower education attainment (p < 0.03).

Conclusion: In this group of non-smoking, predominantly low-education background, overweight, Chinese subjects with fairly well-controlled type 2 DM, periodontal attachment loss and periodontal disease appeared to be associated with DM duration and health behaviour. Health care providers should consider paying more attention to improving the GHB of their type 2 DM patients with long DM duration. DM subjects with a low educational background, having higher HbA1c% and males are more likely to experience gingival inflammation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Body Mass Index
  • Chronic Periodontitis / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Health Behavior
  • Hong Kong
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / complications
  • Oral Hygiene Index
  • Periodontal Attachment Loss / complications
  • Periodontal Index
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha