FGF and ROR2 receptor tyrosine kinase signaling in human skeletal development

Curr Top Dev Biol. 2011;97:179-206. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-385975-4.00013-9.


Skeletal malformations are among the most frequent developmental disturbances in humans. In the past years, progress has been made in unraveling the molecular mechanisms that govern skeletal development by the use of animal models as well as by the identification of numerous mutations that cause human skeletal syndromes. Receptor tyrosine kinases have critical roles in embryonic development. During formation of the skeletal system, the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family plays major roles in the formation of cranial, axial, and appendicular bones. Another player of relevance to skeletal development is the unusual receptor tyrosine kinase ROR2, the function of which is as interesting as it is complex. In this chapter, we review the involvement of FGFR signaling in human skeletal disease and provide an update on the growing knowledge of ROR2.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Development / genetics*
  • Bone Diseases, Developmental* / genetics
  • Bone Diseases, Developmental* / physiopathology
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / genetics
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / metabolism
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors / genetics
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Hedgehog Proteins / genetics
  • Hedgehog Proteins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Models, Animal
  • Mutation
  • Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-like Orphan Receptors* / genetics
  • Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-like Orphan Receptors* / metabolism
  • Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor* / genetics
  • Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor* / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction / physiology
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta1 / genetics
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta1 / metabolism
  • Wnt Signaling Pathway / genetics*


  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
  • Hedgehog Proteins
  • Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta1
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors
  • Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-like Orphan Receptors