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. 2012 Apr;68(4):645-51.
doi: 10.1002/ps.2311. Epub 2011 Nov 10.

Molecular Characterization of Boscalid- And Penthiopyrad-Resistant Isolates of Didymella Bryoniae and Assessment of Their Sensitivity to Fluopyram

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Molecular Characterization of Boscalid- And Penthiopyrad-Resistant Isolates of Didymella Bryoniae and Assessment of Their Sensitivity to Fluopyram

Hervé F Avenot et al. Pest Manag Sci. .

Abstract

Background: Didymella bryoniae has a history of developing resistance to single-site fungicides. A recent example is with the succinate-dehydrogenase-inhibiting fungicide (SDHI) boscalid. In laboratory assays, out of 103 isolates of this fungus, 82 and seven were found to be very highly resistant (B(VHR) ) and highly resistant (B(HR) ) to boscalid respectively. Cross-resistance studies with the new SDHI penthiopyrad showed that the B(VHR) isolates were only highly resistant to penthiopyrad (B(VHR) -P(HR) ), while the B(HR) isolates appeared sensitive to penthiopyrad (B(HR) -P(S) ). In this study, the molecular mechanism of resistance in these two phenotypes (B(VHR) -P(HR) and B(HR) -P(S) ) was elucidated, and their sensitivity to the new SDHI fluopyram was assessed.

Results: A 456 bp cDNA amplified fragment of the succinate dehydrogenase iron sulfur gene (DbSDHB) was initially cloned and sequenced from two sensitive (B(S) -P(S) ), two B(VHR) -P(HR) and one B(HR) -P(S) isolate of D. bryoniae. Comparative analysis of the DbSDHB protein revealed that a highly conserved histidine residue involved in the binding of SDHIs and present in wild-type isolates was replaced by tyrosine (H277Y) or arginine (H277R) in the B(VHR) -P(HR) and B(HR) -P(S) variants respectively. Further examination of the role and extent of these alterations showed that the H/Y and H/R substitutions were present in the remaining B(VHR) -P(HR) and B(HR) -P(S) variants respectively. Analysis of the sensitivity to fluopyram of representative isolates showed that both SDHB mutants were sensitive to this fungicide as the wild-type isolates.

Conclusion: The genotype-specific cross-resistance relationships between the SDHIs boscalid and penthiopyrad and the lack of cross-resistance between these fungicides and fluopyram should be taken into account when selecting SDHIs for gummy stem blight management.

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