Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is an autosomal dominant neurological disorder caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the mutant protein ataxin-1. The cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) are the major targets of mutant ataxin-1. The mechanism of PC death in SCA1 is not known; however, previous work indicates that downregulation of specific proteins involved in calcium homeostasis and signaling by mutant ataxin-1 is the probable cause of PC degeneration in SCA1. In this study, we explored if targeted deprivation of PC specific calcium-binding protein calbindin-D28k (CaB) exacerbates ataxin-1 mediated toxicity in SCA1 transgenic (Tg) mice. Using behavioral tests, we found that though both SCA1/+ and SCA1/+: CaB null (-/+) double mutants exhibited progressive impaired performance on the rotating rod, a simultaneous enhancement of exploratory activity, and absence of deficits in coordination, the double mutants were more severely impaired than SCA1/+ mice. With increasing age, SCA1/+ mice showed a progressive loss in the expression and localization of CaB and other PC specific calcium-binding and signaling proteins. In double mutants, these changes were more pronounced and had an earlier onset. Gene expression profiling of young mice exhibiting no behavior or biochemical deficits revealed a differential expression of many genes common to SCA1/+ and CaB-/+ lines, and unique to SCA1/+: CaB-/+ phenotype. Our study provides further evidence for a critical role of CaB in SCA1 pathogenesis, which may help identify new therapeutic targets to treat SCA1 or other cerebellar ataxias.