Stroke is a frequent and severe complication in adults with sickle cell disease. Ischemic stroke often causes physical and cognitive disability, while hemorrhagic stroke has a high mortality rate. As more children survive, the number of strokes in adults is increasing, yet stroke remains poorly understood. We review the epidemiology of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in adults with sickle cell disease and outline a practical approach to the evaluation of stroke including both sickle cell disease specific and general risk factors. We discuss the acute treatment and secondary prevention of stroke in this population based on the evidence in children with sickle cell disease and the general population, in addition to the limited studies in adults with sickle cell disease.