The ATM protein kinase and cellular redox signaling: beyond the DNA damage response

Trends Biochem Sci. 2012 Jan;37(1):15-22. doi: 10.1016/j.tibs.2011.10.002. Epub 2011 Nov 11.

Abstract

The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase is best known for its role in the DNA damage response, but recent findings suggest that it also functions as a redox sensor that controls the levels of reactive oxygen species in human cells. Here, we review evidence supporting the conclusion that ATM can be directly activated by oxidation, as well as various observations from ATM-deficient patients and mouse models that point to the importance of ATM in oxidative stress responses. We also discuss the roles of this kinase in regulating mitochondrial function and metabolic control through its action on tumor suppressor p53, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1), and how the regulation of these enzymes may be affected in ATM-deficient patients and in cancer cells.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / deficiency
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism*
  • DNA Damage*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / deficiency
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / deficiency
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / deficiency
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism*

Substances

  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • ATM protein, human
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
  • Atm protein, mouse
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Glutathione