We conducted a phase I-II study of transplantation conditioning with clofarabine-melphalan-alemtuzumab for patients with advanced hematologic malignancies. Ten patients were accrued to the phase I portion, which utilized an accelerated titration design. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed, and clofarabine 40 mg/m(2) × 5, melphalan 140 mg/m(2) × 1, and alemtuzumab 20 mg × 5 was adopted for the phase II study, which accrued 72 patients. Median age was 54 years. There were 44 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes, 27 with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and nine patients with other hematologic malignancies. The largest subgroup of 35 patients had American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation high-risk, active disease. All evaluable patients engrafted with a median time to neutrophil and platelet recovery of 10 and 18 days, respectively. The cumulative incidence of treatment-related mortality was 26% at 1 year. Cumulative incidence of relapse was 29% at 1 year. Overall survival was 80% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71-89) at 100 days and 59% (95% CI, 47-71) at 1 year. Progression-free-survival was 45% (95% CI, 33-67) at 1 year. Rapid-onset renal failure was the main toxicity in the phase II study and more frequent in older patients and those with baseline decrease in glomerular filtration rate. Grade 3-5 renal toxicity was observed in 16 of 74 patients (21%) treated at the phase II doses. Clofarabine-melphalan-alemtuzumab conditioning yields promising response and duration of response, but renal toxicity poses a considerable risk particularly in older patients.
Copyright © 2012 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.