Riluzole elevates GLT-1 activity and levels in striatal astrocytes

Neurochem Int. 2012 Jan;60(1):31-8. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2011.10.017. Epub 2011 Nov 6.


Drugs which upregulate astrocyte glutamate transport may be useful neuroprotective compounds by preventing excitotoxicity. We set up a new system to identify potential neuroprotective drugs which act through GLT-1. Primary mouse striatal astrocytes grown in the presence of the growth-factor supplement G5 express high levels of the functional glutamate transporter, GLT-1 (also known as EAAT2) as assessed by Western blotting and ³H-glutamate uptake assay, and levels decline following growth factor withdrawal. The GLT-1 transcriptional enhancer dexamethasone (0.1 or 1 μM) was able to prevent loss of GLT-1 levels and activity following growth factor withdrawal. In contrast, ceftriaxone, a compound previously reported to enhance GLT-1 expression, failed to regulate GLT-1 in this system. The neuroprotective compound riluzole (100 μM) upregulated GLT-1 levels and activity, through a mechanism that was not dependent on blockade of voltage-sensitive ion channels, since zonasimide (1 mM) did not regulate GLT-1. Finally, CDP-choline (10 μM-1 mM), a compound which promotes association of GLT-1/EAAT2 with lipid rafts was unable to prevent GLT-1 loss under these conditions. This observation extends the known pharmacological actions of riluzole, and suggests that this compound may exert its neuroprotective effects through an astrocyte-dependent mechanism.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Astrocytes / drug effects*
  • Astrocytes / metabolism
  • Ceftriaxone / pharmacology
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2 / metabolism*
  • Glutamic Acid / metabolism
  • Isoxazoles / pharmacology
  • Mice
  • Neostriatum / cytology
  • Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Riluzole / pharmacology*
  • Up-Regulation
  • Zonisamide


  • Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2
  • Isoxazoles
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Glutamic Acid
  • Zonisamide
  • Ceftriaxone
  • Riluzole